Tag Archives: hyperfocus

Essential Settings for Landscape Photography

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(An HDR image of Salamanca harbour in Tasmania)

I have been asked about what settings I use when shooting landscapes. It’s no secret but depending on the camera and lens that you use, you may have to use different configurations.

Let me start by saying that I use my Pentax K5 for most of my landscape shots because it does everything I needed it to do. My lens of choice is a cheap Sigma 17-70/2.8-4.5 which you can buy brand new for about $300. I like it’s very flexible range and the focus markings in the barrel.

Without further delay, let me go through my camera settings.

0. Always use a tripod. It will slow you down to think about proper composition. You want to get it right the first time if you can. Of course it will also allow you to shoot at low ISOs and smaller apertures. If you decide to be lazy then stop here; landscape photography isn’t for you.

1. I use aperture priority mode when shooting landscapes. It allows me to keep on shooting even when the light conditions are changing fast without the need to constantly adjust my exposure settings. The only time I use full manual mode is when I’m stitching panos or when doing exposures longer than my camera can handle (i.e. more than 30 seconds).

— Aperture priority mode does not always get the exposure right. When the luminance of the sky and land are almost the same or when there’s only a stop or two of difference between them, say, after the sun is down, I tend to do exposure compensation of +1 stop to maximize the available light (ETTR concept). I also do this during blue hour. If unsure, check your histogram.

2. Set your camera to the lowest NATIVE ISO required to make the shot. Native ISO is not thefake extended ISO values. Most cameras have ISO 100 or 200 with extended ISOs being 50 and 100 respectively. Extended ISOs use some whacky tricks inside the camera that may be detrimental to the images that you capture.

— ISO values are a bit tricky to manage and how you handle them depends on your camera. Note that noise is affected by ISO sensitivity and length of exposure. You will have to test this with your camera. Do not be afraid to shoot at a higher ISO if the scene calls for it. I have been in situations where I have pushed my camera to the limits by shooting at ISO 6400 for 30 seconds. The result was worth it:

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3. Know your lens’es sharpest aperture. It’s usually around f8 when shooting wide or f11 when zoomed in. The difference in aperture compensates for the focal length. At f11, APS-C sensors will start to experience softness due to diffraction but by zooming in, you force the aperture blade to open up to maintain the same f-stop thus allowing you to maximize the center of your lens without suffering from diffraction issues.

— Having said this, don’t be afraid to shoot at f16 or f22 if the scene requires it, say, you want to force a longer exposure to blur the water. If your shot is good enough, people won’t notice the insignificant blur caused by diffraction.

4. Manually focus to your hyperfocal distance. This is something that even experts tend to ignore. Most people rely on autofocus. Learn to hyperfocus because it will save you when your lens starts hunting when the light drops or when you use very dark ND filters. If your lens does not have focal distance markings then you will have to estimate. Read my tutorial on hyperfocusing here.

5. Turn off any image stabilization feature of your lens and/or camera. This means Canon IS, Nikon VR, Pentax SR, Sony SSS and so on. Image stabilization will cause blur because it will try to compensate for movement that isn’t there. This is a feature that is meant for handheld shots and is destructive when shooting on a tripod.

6. There are several choices on how to release the shutter but the best option is to use mirror lock up mode (MUP). MUP will flip the mirror up before opening the shutter curtain to avoid camera shake. Especially that sensors are getting denser, the effects of mirror shake become more noticeable. When using MUP mode, use a shutter release cable to avoid touching the camera. You will have to click the shutter twice: once to flip the mirror and then to open the shutter curtain.

— Your second option is to use the camera timer. This is handy in the absence of a shutter release cable. Set your timer to two seconds or whatever option is available for your camera. This will allow any movement in the camera to settle down after you press the shutter before taking the shot.

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The rest of the settings I will outline below are entirely optional and might be very subjective.

7. If you need to bracket, set the exposure intervals to at least 2 stops. That means -2, 0 +2 for a three-shot bracket. Anything narrower than that is kinda useless because a one-stop gap can easily be recovered from a properly exposed single RAW image.

8. Save both RAW and JPG copies of your shot. Although RAW is very flexible, JPG will save you a lot of retouching time later on. This assumes that you get it right in the camera as close as possible to your intended result. Shooting JPG benefits those who would rather spend time shooting than being in front of the computer.

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(JPG capture looks fantastic if you get it right in camera.)

9. That UV filter is useless unless you are shooting film. Digital sensors have built-in UV filters. UV filters will only cause unnecessary flare and prevent you from using filters that do matter like a CPL or an ND filter for example. If you really want to protect your lens, use a hood instead; it will also protect you from flare instead of causing flare.

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(CPL filters will give you nice saturated colors. This is straight JPG from camera.)

So that’s it. Very easy to follow settings that will hopefully make a difference to your landscape photos. Until next time.

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Hyperfocus: How a Cheap Lens Changed the Way I Shoot

For me, photography is all about having fun. I do not want it to be another job. I’m not saying I do not want to be a pro. In fact, I would like to get paid just traveling and taking photos. I may have taken this “fun” thing into a different level because I have grown a dislike for heavy (i.e. expensive) equipment. Yes, a 70-200/2.8 VR2 is nice to have but I seriously can’t shoot with it for 15 minutes straight without having to shake my arms to relieve myself of that tingling sensation behind my wrist. Yes, I’m cheap and that cheapness had me lose a fair amount of money because I am forced to discard my cheap equipment for something a bit less cheaper. And that brings us to the subject of this post: my cheap Sigma 17-70mm lens.

Like I said, I have grown a dislike for heavy equipment and that includes my stupid Nikon D700. So before I went for a holiday in the Philippines, I decided to get a lighter camera. It has to be small and light but it should not sacrifice image quality and most importantly, it should not get in the way of photography. So I bought a Pentax K5 which was not so cheap back then. And because I’m a cheapskate I was forced to buy the cheapest lens with the best possible zoom range because there is no way I’m gonna get another lens. One camera, one lens. That’s it and nothing more. The Sigma 17-70mm fit the bill. Very good zoom range for just about anything. It goes from 2.8 at the widest end and closes down to 4.5 at full zoom. At $339 AUD it was perfect. Not!!!

It wasn’t until the following day after that errant purchase that I noticed that this lens is terribly soft especially at the corners. At 17mm the corners are so blurry unless I stop down to f11 and even at that aperture it is never sharp. Worse, this lens can never get the focus right. I have updated the camera firmware because the K5 is known to have focus issues in the older firmware versions but that did not fix the problem. I have returned 3 copies of the lens but all of them had the same back-focusing issue. I have grown in love with my camera so I can’t return it but on the other hand, I have this lens that I can’t replace because I’m a cheapskate.

What does a cheapskate got to do? I taught myself how to hyperfocus!

First things first, let’s tackle depth of field, aka, how much of our photo is in sharp focus. We all know (I assume we all know) that we can control our depth of field by changing the lens aperture. The smaller the aperture (f11) the deeper the depth of field. If we want our subject to appear to pop out of the frame, we use a bigger aperture (f2.8) to make the background go out of focus in a creamy blur we call bokeh. Every amateur photographer should understand this. It doesn’t stop there. Another factor in depth of field control is the focal length. Longer focal length means shallower depth of field. Lastly, there is distance to subject. The closer the subject in focus is, the more blurry the background becomes. So again, depth of field is controlled by 3 variables: 1) lens aperture, 2) lens focal length, 3) distance to subject. We need a firm grasp of these 3 basic concepts otherwise the subsequent discussion would be tricky to comprehend. Actually there’s another factor which is the sensor size (or crop factor) but let’s not deal with that because we can cheat as I will show you later.

In landscape photography, we usually would want to capture the grand vista and make everything from the foreground to the background in sharp focus. A very common mistake made by beginners is to allow the camera autofocus mechanism to pick a focal point. Depending on how the camera is aimed, it may focus on the horizon and result on a blurry foreground or focus on the nearest rock and make the background go out of focus. Night time photography would be a lot more difficult because your lens would just hunt and fail to focus properly. Sometimes we get lucky and have everything in sharp focus but we want to control this instead of just relying on luck.

This depth of field control is called hyperfocusing. I’ll go slowly this time and try to explain without using any diagrams (coz I can’t).

If the camera is focused on the far horizon (infinity focus), everything from that horizon up to a certain distance between you and the horizon will be in sharp focus. So if you are standing on point A and the horizon is point C, there is a point B between A and C where everything between B and C is in sharp focus. Keep repeating that sentence until you undertand the concept. Move to the next paragraph when you think you’re ready for the next concept.

That point B, is your hyperfocal point. What that means is, if you focus at point B, there is a point X approximately half-way between point A and B where everything between X and C are in sharp focus. Still with me? So we have something that looks like this:

A—-X—-B—————-C

Point B is the hyperfocal point and everything between X and C are in sharp focus. Take your time to digest those concepts before continuing to the next few paragraphs.

The question is, how do you find point B? Others would tell you to focus one-third of the way to your subject. It’s probably a good approximation but that does not work for me. What I do is memorize a few combinations of numbers. What numbers? You probably guessed it already: the numbers that pertain to the 3 factors that control depth of field.

Here’s an example: My lens goes from 17-70mm. I’m shooting landscape so I want to go as wide as possible so I choose 17mm as my focal length. I know that my camera is soft in the corners unless I stop down to f11 so I use that as my aperture. What’s left is the distance to subject and this is where I cheat 😀 Open another tab in you web browser and point to this URL: http://www.dofmaster.com/dofjs.html. Remember that other factor that controls depth of field? Yep, the sensor size. From there choose your camera model. Yours might not be in there just like my K5 so I chose the Pentax K7 instead. And that’s cheat number one. Now enter the values of your chosen aperture and focal length in the remaining fields. In my case that would be 17 for focal length and f11 for aperture. Never mind the distance to subject field. Just click calculate and the frame on the right would automatically give you the hyperfocal distance and that is cheat number two. In my case this number is 4.25 feet. It means that if I focus on something that is 4.25 feet away from me then everything from 2.13 feet (that’s half-way) up to infinity will be in sharp focus. Don’t worry if the subject seems to be out of focus when viewed through the viewfinder. This is normal because your camera does open aperture metering (as opposed to stop down metering of old film cameras) so you are viewing the scene at full aperture, f2.8 which isn’t your real aperture when you click the shutter. Trust that math will save the day.

What I do is memorize the hyperfocal distance that correspond to the my most used focal lengths, say, from 17mm to 24mm. If I’m not quite sure of my numbers, I would compensate by closing down a stop further. For example, my lens has distance markings on the barrel. There’s one for 3 feet and the next one is 7 feet and then 10 feet and then infinity (that drunk number 8 lying on the floor). Supposing that my chosen composition requires me to zoom in to around 24mm to avoid clutter. I’m not quite sure what my hyperfocal distance is for that focal length. What I do is I set my lens focus distance to that 7 feet marker and stop down to f16. Had I remained at f11, subjects near the horizon will not be in sharp focus. By stopping down to f16, my hyperfocal distance changes such that I could get everything between 3.5 feet and infinity in focus. Neat!

So what’s the moral of the story? Do not let crappy equipment hinder your photography. Instead, try to find ways to work around the minor issues. In my case, I learned how to hyperfocus (and I hope you learned as well from reading this post). Everytime I shoot landscape, I never use autofocus. Hyperfocusing is way superior.

Until then, have fun shooting!